What’s darkish matter product of? It’s one of the perplexing questions of contemporary astronomy. We all know that darkish matter is on the market, since we will see its apparent gravitational affect on every thing from galaxies to the evolution of the whole universe, however we don’t know what it’s. Our greatest guess is that it’s some kind of bizarre new particle that doesn’t like to speak to regular matter fairly often (in any other case we might have seen it by now). One chance is that it’s an unique hypothetical sort of particle often known as an axion, and a group of astronomers are utilizing none aside from black holes to attempt to get a glimpse into this unusual new cosmic critter.
I’ll be sincere with you, we don’t know if axions exist. They had been invented to clarify a conundrum in excessive vitality physics. There’s a sure sort of symmetry in nature the place when you take some random interplay involving plenty of subatomic particles and swap out everybody’s electrical costs for the other signal, and likewise run the method within the mirror, you get the very same end result. This is named cost and parity symmetry, or CP-symmetry for brief.
This symmetry holds in all places in nature, besides when it doesn’t, as within the case of the weak nuclear pressure, which is ready to violate this symmetry each time it feels prefer it.
The conundrum is that by all rights the sturdy nuclear pressure ought to violate this too. There are phrases within the arithmetic that very clearly break CP-symmetry, and but we don’t see any indicators of symmetry breaking with the sturdy nuclear pressure in any of our experiments. So one thing should be happening to revive this symmetry when it must be damaged.
The reply – or at the least one potential reply – is a brand new sort of particle referred to as the axion. The axion restores a sure sort of stability within the pressure (sure I’m conscious of the Star wars reference right here) in order that the CP-symmetry is preserved and everybody can go about their each day lives. In fact experiments to this point haven’t immediately revealed the existence of the axion, and there’s a variety of attainable lots and properties that the axion may have.
Artist’s impression of darkish matter surrounding the Milky Means. (ESO/L. Calçada)
Inside that vary of attainable allowable lots and properties of the axion, one thing exceptional happens. If we need to replenish the universe with darkish matter, that darkish matter has to have sure properties. It could possibly’t work together with regular matter fairly often and it may’t even work together with itself fairly often both. Additionally, there must be lots of it, and it must be very secure and long-lived. It seems that a few of the vary of attainable axion properties permit that hypothetical particle to be a candidate for the darkish matter.
The Darkish Axions
If we let the axion be the darkish matter it may usually clarify all the standard darkish matter observations. It could possibly clarify the rotation curves inside galaxies. It could possibly clarify the motions of galaxies inside galaxy clusters. It may be manufactured in adequate abundance within the early Universe to suit observations of the cosmic microwave background. And so forth.
What’s extra, axions within the cores of galaxies can bundle collectively tightly sufficient to type a single large ball that might at first blush look rather a lot like a supermassive black gap. It might be small, it wouldn’t work together with gentle, and it will be extremely large. Whereas current observations from the Occasion Horizon Telescope gave us a literal image of a large black gap in one other galaxy, it doesn’t imply essentially rule out that these axion cores nonetheless lurk within the depths of galaxies throughout the Universe. And it’s with these attainable axion cores that we’d have the ability to get a deal with on their properties.
Black Holes are the Key
Apart from the Occasion Horizon Telescope, we’ve got no direct observations of supermassive black holes. We will solely see the fabric that’s swirling and seething round them. And from the properties of that materials we will estimate the scale and mass of the black holes. With these methods, over the many years we’ve uncovered a really unusual relationship: extra large galaxies host extra large black holes of their facilities. This relationship is definitely comparatively tight and it tells us that black holes in some way co-evolved with their host galaxies.
This artist’s idea reveals essentially the most distant supermassive black gap ever found. It’s a part of a quasar from simply 690 million years after the Large Bang. Credit score: Robin Dienel/Carnegie Establishment for Science
However like I mentioned, we will’t observe the black holes immediately. So they won’t be black holes in any respect. They may be axion cores hiding within the facilities of these galaxies. If so then it’s not that black holes co-evolved with their host galaxies, however that axion cores co-evolved with their host galaxies. The larger the galaxy, the extra axion darkish matter it may host, and the larger the axion core within the middle.
This implies we will use the connection between the central darkish object (whether or not it’s black gap or axion core) and the galaxy itself to constrain the properties of axions. This works as a result of when you begin enjoying with the axion particle mass then this impacts how simply you’ll be able to clump as much as type a core, which is able to change the connection to the host galaxy.
A group of astronomers lately employed the connection between black holes and galaxies to do precisely this, and had been in a position to place some higher limits on the axion particle mass, which is able to assist information future experiments and direct searches. Is the axion liable for the darkish matter within the universe? Hopefully sometime we will shed some gentle on the scenario.
Learn extra: “Axion core – halo mass and the black gap–halo mass relation: constraints on just a few parsec scales“