Visitor eye-rolling by David Middleton
This eye-catching weblog submit was revealed in 2017 by “Gasoline Fighter“…
Determine 1. Improper.
Gasoline Fighter sells residence heating oil within the UK… But this has been handled as if it was an precise oil business supply.
It was picked up by Web “information” websites like Enterprise Insider…
The world’s deepest oil nicely is over 40,000 ft deep
Jeff Desjardins, Visible Capitalist Mar. 21, 2017, 7:33 PM
On the earth’s deepest gold mine, employees will enterprise 2.5 miles (Four km) under the Earth’s floor to extract from a 30-inch (zero.8m) broad vein of gold-rich ore.
Whereas these depths are spectacular, mining is proscribed by the frailty of the human physique. Going a lot deeper could be extremely harmful, as limitations reminiscent of warmth, humidity, logistics, and potential seismic exercise all develop into extra intense.
Fortunately, the oil business doesn’t have such human obstacles, and drilling deep into the Earth’s crust is as an alternative restricted by a distinct set of circumstances – how deep can the equipment and expertise go earlier than the unfathomable warmth and stress renders it inoperable?
The world’s deepest oil nicely
Immediately’s infographic involves us from Gasoline Fighter, and it helps to visualise the mind-boggling depths of the world’s deepest oil nicely, which is positioned in a distant nook of jap Russia.
A number of “sciencey” web sites additionally described it because the deepest oil nicely on this planet and/or reposted the Gasoline Repair infographic:
And it generated hilarious feedback like this:
Bear in mind of us: oil could also be discovered 13 km deep however oil that’s of biotic origin! Rotten dinosaurs, sincere!
Critically, the Russians have been proper all alongside, oil is clearly of abiotic nature. Or not less than, ALSO of abiotic nature.
“Cloggie” at Peak Oil
Whereas a number of of the media studies and the Gasoline Repair infographic allude to drilling “sideways” or “extended-reach,” all of them appear omit the phrase “vertical.” And all of them depart the reader with the impression that that is the deepest oil nicely ever drilled. This isn’t even improper.
When wells are drilled, the depth is measured from a reference datum, normally the Kelly bushing (KB) of the drilling rig. In vertical holes, the measured depth equals the true vertical depth. In directional drilling, the measured depth is larger than the true vertical depth. The higher the outlet angle, the larger the distinction.
Determine 2. TVD vs MD. Drilling Course
Measured depth is mainly how far the nicely was drilled. True vertical depth is how deep the nicely was drilled.
The Chayvo wells have been spectacular accomplishments…
ERD advances push limits on Chayvo wells
Apr 22, 2014
Prolonged-reach drilling undertaking from onshore rig surpasses earlier Sakhalin campaigns, units world information for MD
By Vishwas P. Gupta, ExxonMobil Growth Co; Angel H.P. Yeap, Kyle M. Fischer, Randall S. Mathis, Exxon Neftegas; Michael J. Egan, advisor to Exxon Neftegas
The second drilling marketing campaign on the Chayvo area, positioned offshore Sakhalin Island, focused a brand new reservoir zone utilizing extended-reach wells from onshore. A complete of 4 oil producers and one gasoline injector have been deliberate to develop the northern portion of the reservoir. To successfully drain the east and west flanks of this reservoir, record-length wells past the present prolonged attain drilling (ERD) envelope have been required. Key challenges included excessive torque and drag, wellbore positioning in a skinny oil column, wellbore stability, lengthy horizontal completions, and downhole software telemetry.
Three of the undertaking wells set ERD information for measured depth (MD). The longest nicely, Z-42, established information for MD (12,700 m) and horizontal attain (11,739 m). Completion designs have been optimized to efficiently run an roughly three,600-m open-hole completion, and the nicely was completed in roughly 70 days.
Whereas the Chayvo wells are spectacular when it comes to measured depth, they aren’t notably deep.
Determine three. Drilling Contractor
The measured depth (MD) of “the world’s deepest oil nicely” is over 40,000′. Nevertheless, the true vertical depth of “the world’s deepest oil nicely” is just a couple of very unremarkable 11,000′ deep… The Z-44 nicely was designed for a horizontal completion, so its measured depth was exceptionally lengthy. It’s not solely not “the world’s deepest oil nicely,” it’s about 20,000′ shy of the deepest oil nicely within the Gulf of Mexico, presumably deepest on this planet. BP’s Tiber discovery on Keathley Canyon Block 102 logged oil pay under 30,000′ TVD. Regardless of its depth, the bottomhole temperature was solely about 280 °F, inside the oil window. This discovery has but to be developed. Nevertheless, there are fairly a couple of oil wells within the Gulf producing from oil reservoirs at true vertical depths of 20,000′ to 28,000′. All of those have bottomhole temperatures lower than 300 °F
Deeper wells have been drilled for pure gasoline. One of many extra attention-grabbing was the Lone Star Producing Firm’s Bertha Rogers #1 within the Anadarko Basin of Oklahoma.
On April 13, 1974, Bertha Rogers No. 1 reached a complete depth of 31,441 ft – the place it encountered liquid sulfur. In response to Lone Star Producing Firm, the underside gap stress and temperature have been an estimated 24,850 kilos per sq. inch and 475 levels Fahrenheit respectively. It required about eight hours for backside gap cuttings to succeed in the floor nearly six miles above.
“It was the deepest gap on this planet till it was surpassed by a nicely within the Soviet Union a number of years later,” Dorman studies. “Even so, Bertha Rogers reigned because the deepest nicely in the US for 3 many years, lastly exceeded in 2004.”
Though no gasoline was produced at its report depth, the nicely was efficiently competed as a pure gasoline discovery at 13,000 ft. “Like its predecessors, the Bertha Rogers as a enterprise enterprise was a shedding proposition,” he notes. “It price $7 million however yielded comparatively little gasoline. Some observers categorized it as an ultra-deep dry gap.”
Among the many deepest wells on this planet have been the “Kola Superdeep Borehole,” a 1989 experimental nicely drilled the Soviet Union. It reached 40,230 ft deep. In 2008, an oil nicely was drilled to 40,318 ft in Qatar. In 2011, a 40,502-foot nicely was drilled offshore of the Russian island of Sakhalin.
American Oil & Fuel Historic Society
The MD vs TVD subject even evaded the discover of the American Oil & Fuel Historic Society.
Private connection: Lone Star Producing grew to become Enserch Exploration in 1975 and was my first employer within the oil & gasoline business. I labored for Enserch from 1981-1997. Lots of the executives had items of sulfur that have been recovered from the Bertha Rogers nicely.
The Chayvo oilfield
The Chayvo oilfield could be very spectacular for a lot of causes; nevertheless the depths of the wells and the oil & gasoline reservoirs usually are not amongst these causes. The reservoirs are comparatively shallow, younger (Miocene to Pliocene Epochs) and all the complete petroleum system is inside the Neogene Interval (lower than 23 million years outdated.
Determine Four. North Sakhalin Basin TPS Stratigraphic Column (Lindquist, 2000)
The Chayvo prospect was first recognized on 2nd seismic surveys in 1971, drilled in 1979 and assessed as a gasoline useful resource in 1982. Presently improvement was deferred. Within the mid-1990’s, Russia opened up its oil & gasoline potential to western corporations and ExxonMobil went to work:
Determine 5. Chayvo Subject Overview (Apotria et al., 2005)
Right here is the Gasoline Fighter infographic on the similar scale as a cross-section of the Chayvo oilfield:
Determine 6. Perspective… What a novel idea! Cross part from Apotria et al., 2005.
Apotria, Ted, Poffenberger, Mike, Powell, Rick & Venner, Bridget. (2005). Chayvo Subject, Sakhalin Island, Russia: Identification of a Important Oil Leg From 3D Seismic and Execution of a World-Class Prolonged-Attain-Drilling Program. AAPG 2007 Annual Conference, Lengthy Seaside, California, April 1-Four, 2007. 10.2523/IPTC-10573-MS.
Handbook of Texas On-line, Jeff Seidel, “ENSERCH CORPORATION,” accessed April 17, 2019, http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/on-line/articles/dqe01. Uploaded on June 12, 2010. Revealed by the Texas State Historic Affiliation.
Lindquist, Sandra J. & USGS World Vitality Evaluation Group. & Geological Survey (U.S.). Workplace of the World Vitality Sources Program. & Geological Survey (U.S.). (2000). The North Sakhalin Neogene complete petroleum system of jap Russia. Denver, Colo : U.S. Dept. of the Inside, U.S. Geological Survey